Recently we had the unpleasant experience of investigating a gruesome and almost deadly accident. A maintenance worker was removing a cable tie from a package on the loading dock when his pocketknife slipped and punctured his thigh, slicing his femoral artery. If it weren’t for his quick-thinking coworkers and the fortunate proximity of the hospital emergency room, the outcome might have been tragic. Luckily compression was applied by coworkers well trained in first aid, and a very short trip to the emergency room saved his life. The sad story here is that this accident was totally preventable.
The bigger story is that every year there are thousands of these types of accidents in every kind of business across the country. In one published report, Consumer Product Safety Commission statistics indicated that nearly 40 percent of all medically treated injuries due to manual tools in the United States involved knives or retractable blades. These injuries happen due to broken blades, accidental cuts while changing blades, inappropriate use or mishandling of utility knives, and, of course, using the wrong tool for the job.
Research laboratories are no exception when it comes to jobs requiring cutting or the use of sharp blades. I guarantee that your facility has a shipping/receiving area and many other lab areas where cutting is done without a second thought. So in this issue the Safety Guys offer a few basic tips on safe use of cutting instruments and on preventing accidents and close calls.
Let’s take a look around
Have you noticed all the different applications around your facility that require some type of cutting or use of a utility knife? Almost all workers have something to cut during the week. In fact, we bet many carry pocketknives or utility knives in their pockets, on their tool belts, or at arm’s reach in a drawer or on the workbench. Some common uses include opening boxes and packages; cutting cartons, string, or strapping material; slicing shrink wrap; opening bags; and general maintenance.
Utility knives are one of the most common tools used in the workplace yet one of the most dangerous, especially in terms of the number and types of injuries produced. We often take these tools for granted, and the dangers of inappropriate cutting equipment and procedures are too frequently overlooked. Let’s see if we can cut down on these injuries by taking a look at our cutting tools and some of the newer knives available and then evaluating a few tips on proper cutting techniques.
The right tool for the job
We have all heard the phrase many times—choose the right tool for the job and the job can be done much more quickly and safely. The first rule is to carefully choose the right tool to suit the material you are cutting. There are literally hundreds of knife designs and blade types from which to choose. Let’s discuss some of the key features of utility knives and specialty cutting tools now available so we can match the task with the best design and blade. Ask yourself whether a utility knife is the most appropriate tool. Would a pair of scissors or snips do the job better or more safely?
According to the CPSC, the most prevalent injury is a cut or laceration during blade changes. In order to minimize this risk, look for designs that make changing blades as easy as possible. Use of blunt-tipped blades along with ergonomically designed and ambidextrous handles is also helpful. In-handle blade storage can save time and blade handling, but the key is to make blade changing easy.
Cutters with permanent blade guards can protect employees, as the blade is never exposed. This type of cutter also protects the package contents from damage. For many designs the protective guard acts as a guide to help position the cutter as well.
Another feature widely available in today’s utility knives is the spring-back blade mechanism. This design instantly retracts the blade when it loses contact with the material being cut. The spring-back feature can dramatically reduce puncture injuries.
One of the newer design features for utility knives is the bimetal blade. With the bimetal process, two different metals are fused using electron-beam welding. For utility knife blades they are usually a high-carbon steel for sharpness and a flexible spring steel that bends but does not break or shatter. These bimetal blades can last significantly longer than plain carbon steel blades, with one industry reporting a six-fold increase in time between blade changes.
These blades can help reduce injuries and increase safety in two ways. By staying sharp longer they reduce a worker’s natural tendency to press harder as a blade dulls, thus decreasing slips and blade shattering. And since they last longer, they reduce the need for blade changes, lowering the number of injuries accompanying that task.
Tips for safe cutting
Now that we have chosen the right tool for the task, let’s review some rules for safe cutting:
• Always wear safety glasses. You never know when a blade might shatter or a strap snap loose.
• Wear appropriate protective gloves, especially on the hand that holds the work piece being cut. The proper glove not only protects the hand but also can improve the grip.
• Always cut with a sharp blade. As we mentioned above, a dull blade requires excessive force, increasing the chance of injury.
• Do not make blind cuts. This means clearing the entire length of the cut so nothing unexpected is encountered.
• Make sure you are balanced and your footing is stable and secure. Use a natural cutting movement. This will minimize slips.
• Keep your noncutting hand away from the line of the cut.
• Always pull the knife toward you when cutting on a flat surface. This is a safe, natural movement that provides the best control.
• If using a guide or straightedge, make sure it is securely clamped.
• If the blade begins to tear rather than cut the work, change the blade.
• Do not force a bend or apply side loads to the cutting blade. This is the primary cause of blade breakage.
• Do not use utility knives for prying or other noncutting tasks.
Every workplace requires cutting tasks where utility knives are used. This most common work tool is too often taken for granted and a source of many unnecessary injuries. By observing your various cutting operations and the type of utility knives used, you can ensure that the proper tool is used for the task. Reviewing a few simple rules with employees can help prevent some of the most common and potentially dangerous workplace injuries. Be careful out there.