Titration, a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant, is today usually performed by a dedicated titrator. Different types of titrators are available depending on the specific analysis required.
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Use the following decision tree to help narrow your equipment selection.
Do you require a single mode or combined mode titrator?
Most titrators offer one type of analysis, whether it is Karl Fischer, potentiometric or another type. These titrators are suitable for most purposes in which the same types of analyses are performed multiple times.
Select the method of titration that best suits your application.
Karl Fischer titration is a classic titration method in analytical chemistry used to determine trace amounts of water in a sample. It can be used for determining the water content in fluids, solids, pasty substances, oils and gases.
Do you require a volumetric or coulometric titrator?
In volumetric Karl Fischer titration, the titrant is added directly to the sample via a burette.
The moisture content of the sample is determined from the titration volume.
In coulometric Karl Fischer titration, the titrant is generated electrochemically in the titration
cell. The coulometric method measures water levels much lower than the volumetric method.
In a potentiometric titration, no indicator is used. Instead, the voltage across the analyte (typically an electrolyte solution) is measured.
The acidity or alkalinity of a solution may be determined using a classic acid/base titration.
pH-stat titration is applicable to any bioreaction involving pH variations. The main application of pH-stat titration has traditionally been nitrification monitoring.
Titrators can also be designed to analyze single elements such as sulfur or chlorine.
In some circumstances, particularly where different types of analyses are required from
time to time and no single analysis is performed routinely, a combined titrator may be the ideal solution. What type of combined mode titrator do you require?
Potentiometric plus KF
Some titrators are equipped to perform both potentiometric and Karl Fischer titrations.
Conductivity plus Potentiometric
Some titrators are equipped to perform both potentiometric and conductivity titrations.
Titrators used in the analysis of food and drink, for example, may be required to analyze a whole range of factors including chloride, acid and water content. These titrators can be considered 'multi-parameter' systems.