Problem: At the crossroads of understanding cell physiology, disease pathology and etiology lies cell metabolism, encompassing the cellular set of life-sustaining chemical transformations. Dysregulation of cell metabolism is now known to be a common component of cancer, immunology, obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disease. This is because mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis are the major sources of life-sustaining and biosynthetic processes for the cell, specifically energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and macromolecules such as membranes, nucleotides, transporters, organelles, etc. Metabolic pathways are increasingly considered as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, the ability to measure and understand cellular bioenergetics can provide valuable insight into disease and contribute to the potential identification of drug discovery targets.