Most assays with fluorescent or radioactive labels are endpoint assays, meaning the data is relevant to only one point in time—usually the end of the assay. Such assays mask the complexity of a binding interaction providing limited drug candidate characteristics, target binding or analyte concentration and quality. Analytical techniques that measure protein quantity and quality are used in nearly all stages of research, process development, and manufacturing of biotherapeutics. Despite their many limitations, ELISA assays have been used for decades for affinity measurements and protein quantitation in physiological and process samples.
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