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Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) machine in laboratory and blur computer controller background

Advancements in Scanning Electron Microscopes

Explore the latest developments in electron microscopes, including improvements in detectors, sample holders, and software for enhanced usability and data quality

Michael Beh, PhD

Michael Beh, PhD, is a passionate scientist and freelance scientific writer with more than eight years of research and writing experience in academic and industry settings. With a PhD in...

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In scientific discovery, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) stands as a powerful tool, enabling researchers to delve into the microscopic world with unparalleled precision. Scanning electron microscopes work by firing a concentrated electron beam onto the surface of a sample and using the predictable interactions between the electrons and sample surface to produce images of much higher resolution (from <1 nm up to several nm) than is possible with optical microscopy.


One of the notable advancements in recent SEM technology centers on detectors—the components responsible for capturing and interpreting electron signals to generate images. Specialized low-vacuum detectors in recent SEMs enhance imaging of nonconductive samples without the need for a conductive coating, overcoming traditional limitations and preventing imaging artifacts. This innovative technology significantly boosts low-vacuum SEM capabilities for detailed surface analysis in materials development and semiconductor device analysis.

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Sample holders

Sample holders are crucial for stabilizing and positioning samples to achieve optimal imaging. Recent SEMs boast larger sample chambers designed to accommodate samples of increased weight and size, with samples ranging up to 30 cm in diameter, 21 cm in height, and 5 kg in weight, depending on the model. This development is especially noteworthy in fields like materials science, geology, and archaeology, where examining larger specimens is essential. Importantly, this enhancement allows for the study of substantial samples without compromising their integrity to fit within a smaller sample chamber.


Modern SEM software is more than an instrument operator; it's now a comprehensive suite that enhances usability, streamlines workflows, and extracts meaningful data from complex imaging processes. Increased automation makes SEMs user-friendly and accessible, with interfaces simplifying interactions and eliminating the need for extensive expertise. An exemplary application of this can be found at the University of California, Berkeley, where a new SEM is being used by undergraduate students in a teaching laboratory. In praising the students' remarkable proficiency with the SEM, the professor in charge of the course, Michael Zuerch, PhD, emphasizes the pivotal role of the SEM's intuitive user interface and control panel, attributing the smooth operation to its user-friendly design:

“What is particularly remarkable is the students' ability to efficiently operate the SEM in almost all cases with no prior experience. From powering on the machine to measuring spatial features less than 50 nm, I think the intuitive user interface and control panel play a pivotal role in this smooth operation. The minimal assistance required from our teaching assistants is a testament to the user-friendly design of the SEM,” says Zuerch.

The combination of advancing detectors, increasing sample size, and sophisticated software creates a powerful platform for scientific exploration. Researchers can now embark on intricate studies, investigating the nanoscale structure of materials with unprecedented ease and precision. These developments collectively contribute to enhanced usability and data quality. As SEMs continue to evolve, their role in scientific discovery will undoubtedly become even more central, driving innovation and expanding our understanding of the intricate structures that shape the foundations of our world.